Chewable Antibiotics
What are Chewbiotics?

Ingenuity and surprise are the key elements in triggering a celebration that is revolutionary and global in nature.

Our Chewbiotics have given the medical professionals a new reason for saying, 'Cheers' in one voice. At its heart, Chewbiotics are oral antibiotics in the chewable form, but what truly makes them unique and give patients world-over a reason to celebrate is, its amazingly pleasant taste. But that's still just one beat in the song. Chewbiotics are packed with a whole bunch of features that surprise not only patients, but also give doctors, medical professional tasty antibiotics solving their patient compliance problems.

So how exactly did we pull off creating this technology that improves compliance, curing ability, portability and worldwide acceptability of antibiotics?

We noticed that all too often most oral antibiotics were perceived to have a very unpleasant taste, which overshadowed the other wide range of benefits they could provide. To dampen this issue we tried to give our Chewbiotics the highest level of palatability by adopting the 'Taste masking', approach.

Chewbiotics made using our 'Taste masking approach' when chewed, produce a surprisingly pleasant tasting residue in the oral cavity that is easily swallowed and does not leave a bitter and unpleasant aftertaste but what it definitely manages to leave instead is, a smile on the patient's face. This attribute of having a great taste gives our Chewbiotics a widespread acceptance amongst all types of patients, most importantly children who don't approve of anything that's even one degree towards bitter or unpleasant.

So that's just how it all got started. But turning this idea into a celebration of good health in its essence, takes lot more than just a great taste. It requires throwing a lot of science, research, and technology into the mix of passion, dedication and an urge to innovate. That's exactly the fusion music for every one of us at SRS Pharma!

We sprinted further on up the road of innovation and managed to add more interesting features such as, quicker disintegration, rapid absorption facilitating a faster onset of desired results giving patients faster relief and precise dosing as compared to conventional tablets. They were also given attributes such as, high stability when compared to conventional liquid medicines. While formulating them, we contemplated their usage by a wide variety of patients, and took efforts to make them well suited even to pediatric patients and patients suffering from dysphagia- difficulty to swallow.

Chewbiotics are very patient friendly, easy to administer, improve compliance noticeably, making them a suitable replacement for conventional medicines. The resulting blend of superior quality and many unique features is what make Chewbiotics as a product, truly patient friendly and our effort of turning medicines and treatments into a world-wide celebration of good health, a reality!

Benefits and Advantages
An elegant touch of class and innovation are the major elements that have lead to the development of a unique product that overturns the perception of patients towards taste and palatability of antibiotics.

Below are the advantages of Chewbiotics over conventional oral antibiotics:
  1. Faster Drug release: The time taken for drug release is an important factor while treating various diseases. Chewbiotics take minimal time to get into the system and start working. This helps in giving patients relief much faster than conventional medicine.

  2. Rapid and better absorption: Since efficiency of any medicine depends on how well our body can absorb it, Chewbiotics are designed for faster absorption, giving quicker relief and better results to patients.

  3. Faster onset of action when compared to normal tablets: Since Chewbiotics are designed for quick delivery and optimal absorption, patients see their symptoms subside much faster. A faster onset of desired results plays a vital role in getting positive compliance from patients and in restoring the psychological well-being of the patient in distress.

  4. Highly palatable and increased patient compliance: Since Chewbiotics leave a pleasant aftertaste, they are acceptable to a wide range of patients and most importantly to children.

  5. Increased bioavailability: Bioavailability of a drug means how much of the drug actually is absorbed by our body and will finally get into circulation, to give patients the desired results. As opposed to tablets, Chewbiotics are ingested as liquid suspensions which increase their bioavailability and absorption, considerably.

  6. Stable formulations as compared to liquid form: The administration of medicinal elements present in liquid medication is rheologically dependent. They also sometimes react with varying temperatures, moisture conditions and exposure to sunlight and are hence comparatively less stable. Chewbiotics are more stable as compared to their liquid counter parts.

  7. Offer precise dosing: Dosing of Chewbiotics is accurate and easy, as no other medium of measurement such as a spoon or cap, etc. are required to ascertain it. The dosage can be prescribed simply in, number of chewable tablets to be taken. Chewbiotic tablets can also, easily be split into halves for precise dosing, if necessary.

  8. Enables easy portability and ease of delivery: Liquid medications often have the problems of leaking containers, loose caps, wet labels, unpleasant taste and odor due to reaction with natural factors associated with them. On the other hand, tablets are required to be consumed only with water or liquid drinks and if not consumed once removed from the packing can be easily misplaced or will lose identification. Chewbiotics have none of the above issues associated with them and offer perfect portability and easy of delivery.
Why Chewable Antibiotics
Why Chewbiotics?

Chewbiotics are truly unique and it gets recognition as being a fun and enjoyable medicine that not only cures effectively, but also surprises and awes the patients with its amazing taste and a bundle of other fun packed features.

The rationale behind creating the Chewbiotics was never simply to just eliminate issues associated with conventional medicines, but to give doctors and patients, a more 'complete' and a 'value added' solution for their needs.

And for that reason, if looked at from a larger perspective, the innovation of Chewbiotics was seldom to keep the patients happy and smiling while being treated.

We try to design our medicines to be fun and enjoyable so that while taking them, patients don't really keep getting reminded that they are undergoing some form of treatment, but rather feel like they are a part of a celebration of good health.

Chewbiotics are all largely complemented by the simple but powerful philosophy, a happy patient is a more compliant patient. We believe targeting the overall well-being and happiness of the patient will always give the therapy better effectiveness and better chances of success.

Rationale behind development
The Rationale:
  • They provide a suitable replacement for oral tablets and liquids, which often have problems of, bad portability, poor storing, inaccurate dosing, inefficient delivery and absorption, etc associated with them.

  • They eliminate the difficulty to swallow tablets. Tablets are not easy to swallow for all patients, especially children who often find this more difficult than adults.

  • Oral suspensions and solutions for that matter are perceived to be easier to swallow, however it goes without argument that all antibiotics whether liquid or solid, in general have a very bad taste, and ingesting them is not something that any patient does by choice.

  • Chewbiotics are easy to chew on, and stimulate the taste-buds with their pleasant taste, making them highly palatable and 'patient-friendly'.

  • They effectively convert unpleasant tasting antibiotics into a taste-masked, highly palatable form, which makes the experience of ingesting antibiotics more pleasant and enjoyable. This helps increase patients compliance and adherence to the antibiotic, and to the antibiotic therapy.
Advantages over conventional dosage forms
Advantage Chewable Tablets - Over Tablets / Capsules

Chewable Tablets have several noticeable advantages over conventional tablets and capsules:
  1. Chewing is easier than swallowing: Children and other patients with inability to swallow often find swallowing medications to be a highly unpleasant and painful experience. Since Chewbiotics are meant to be chewed and also come in a pleasant 'mixed fruit' flavour, patients find them pleasant to chew on and easy to ingest. This attribute of having a nice fruity flavour helps Chewbiotics to treat patients, without constantly reminding them of their medications and illness.

  2. Better drug release due to early disintegration: Conventional Tablets often don't give the desired effects as immediately as patients would prefer them to. This is for the simple reason that they start disintegrating in the stomach after being swallowed. Chewbiotics however, almost always give effect sooner, as their disintegration takes place early in the oral cavity making the medication available for better absorption.

  3. Faster onset of action: Since Chewbiotics are absorbed faster and better than tablets and capsules, they are quicker in providing relief. Patients would see their symptoms subside much faster, making them far more compliant and happy with the treatment, than before.

Advantage Chewable Tablets - OVER Dry and Liquid Syrups / Suspensions

Chewable Tablets have some clear cut benefits' over dry and liquid syrups / suspensions as well:
  1. Administration is independent of rheology: Since the flow of medication cannot be accurately predicted, the attribute of being rheology dependent makes effective administration of conventional syrups and suspensions difficult. However Chewbiotics are rheology independent.

  2. Packing and accurate dosing: Syrups and Suspensions are often difficult to administer and run the risk of being lost while handling. Even dosing them accurately is a difficult task as compared to Chewable Tablets in which case a single Chewable Tablet normally signifies a single dose. This removes inconsistent dosage measuring mediums, such as caps and spoons out of the equation making dosing accurate and easy.

  3. Easy to handle: Syrups and suspension come in bottles and containers which easily crack, leak, whose caps loosen overtime, and labels loose important markings. They become tacky and eventually quite inconvenient to handle. Such hindrances are not encountered while handling Chewable Tablets.

  4. Paediatric Patients tend to be more co-operative: Since Chewable Tablets have a tasty flavour, they tend to be more palatable, which helps obtain good co-operation and compliance from paediatric patients as compared to conventional syrups and suspensions.
Products
Product list-classified with Category

BrandActive IngredientFormStrengthPack TypePacking Style
Cefac ChewCefaclorChewable Tablet250mg, 500mgAlu-Alu10's
Cefdi ChewCefdinirChewable Tablet300mgAlu-Alu10's
Cefix ChewCefiximeChewable Tablet100mg, 200mg,
400mg
Alu-Alu10's
Cefpo ChewCefpodoxime Chewable Tablet100mg, 200mgAlu-Alu10's
Cefu ChewCefuroxime Axetil Chewable Tablet250mg, 500mgAlu-Alu10's
Zithro ChewAzithromycin Chewable Tablet250mg, 500mgAlu-Alu10's
Clari ChewClarithromycin Chewable Tablet250mg, 500mgAlu-Alu10's
Potclav ChewAmoxicillin + Clavulanate Potassium Chewable Tablet250mg + 125mg, 500mg + 125mg, 875mg + 125mgAlu-Alu10's
CEFIX CHEW
Product Description
Available as CEFIX CHEW 100, CEFIX CHEW 200 and CEFIX CHEW 400

Each CEFIX CHEW 100 tablet (Chewable) contains, Cefixime Trihydrate USP equivalent to Cefixime 100mg
Each CEFIX CHEW 200 tablet (Chewable) contains, Cefixime Trihydrate USP equivalent to Cefixime 200mg
Each CEFIX CHEW 400 tablet (Chewable) contains, Cefixime Trihydrate USP equivalent to Cefixime 400mg

Pharmacology

Cefixime is a beta lactam antibiotic and a member of third generation cephalosporins. It exerts antibacterial activity by binding to and inhibiting the action of penicillin-binding proteins involved in the synthesis of bacterial cell walls. This leads to bacterial cell lysis and death. Cefixime is also stable to hydrolysis by many beta-lactamases.


Cefixime



Antimicrobial spectrum
Cefixime Antimicrobial spectrum given below explains how Cefixime exerts its action on different types of bacterial groups:

  1. From the group of Gram-positive bacteria
    • Streptococci are sensitive to Cefixime but most strains of staphylococci, enterococci and Listeria spp. are resistant

  2. From the group of Gram-negative bacteria
    • Cefixime is active against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp. and both indole-positive and indole-negative Proteus, Providencia, Salmonella, Serratia, Shigella and Yersinia spp.
    • Penicillin-resistant strains of Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis (Branhamella catarrhalis), Neisseria gonorrhoeae or N. meningitidis.
    • Brucella melitensis is moderately sensitive.
    • Enterobacteriae are less susceptible to cefixime
    • Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacteroides spp. are resistant to cefixime

  3. From the group of Anaerobic bacteria
    • Cefixime is active against, Spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi and Haemophilus ducreyi
    • Bacteroides fragilis may be moderately sensitive, but many strains are resistant;
    • Clostridium perfringens is sensitive, but most Cl. difficile are resistant.

Depending on the geography and passage of time, the prevalence of resistance to cefixime may exist for some species. Therefore local information on resistance is desirable, particularly when treating severe infections.

Dosage and administration
For therapeutic results and safety, we advise you to follow the dosage and administration rules mentioned below:

General rules
  • Always chew CEFIX CHEW tablets before swallowing. Its ability to be absorbed and give faster results depends a lot on its disintegration, which can be supported by chewing well prior to swallowing. Since it has a pleasant fruity flavor, chewing it well shouldn't be a problem even for children.
  • It can be taken with or without food.
This product is to be taken as per instructions in the Product package insert, or as recommended by your doctor.

Indications
CEFIX CHEW is indicated for the treatment of infections caused by susceptible microorganisms including:
  • Otitis
  • Sinusitis
  • Pharyngitis
  • Acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis
  • Community acquired pneumonia
  • Lower urinary tract infections
  • Pyelonephritis
  • Shigellosis
  • Gonorrhea
The usual course of treatment is 7 days. In severe cases, this can be extended to 14 days. For infections caused by streptococcus pyogenes, a therapeutic dose of cefixime should be administered for at least 10 days.

Product Presentation
Supplied in a Box with Alu-Alu blister pack of 10 Tablets.

This information is meant for answering some frequently asked questions about the product. It does not contain a complete list of all risks and benefits of taking this product. Your doctor or pharmacist can provide more comprehensive information.


References
  • SC Sweetman, Martindale, The complete drug reference, 36th edition, The Pharmaceutical Press, 2009
  • Brogden R N, Campoli-Richards, D M, Cefixime: A Review of its Antibacterial Activity, Pharmacokinetic Properties and Therapeutic Potential, (1989), 38(4), 524-550
  • D Kalman, S L Barriere, Review of the Pharmacology, Pharmacokinetics, and Clinical Use of Cephalosporins, Texas Heart Institute journal, 17(3), 1990, 203-215
CEFAC CHEW
Product Description
Available as CEFAC CHEW 250 and CEFAC CHEW 500

Each CEFAC CHEW 250 tablet (Chewable) contains, Cefaclor USP equivalent to anhydrous Cefaclor 250 mg
Each CEFAC CHEW 500 tablet (Chewable) contains, Cefaclor USP equivalent to anhydrous Cefaclor 500mg

Pharmacology
Cefaclor, is a beta-lactam antibiotic belonging to the group of second generation Cephalosporin. It binds specifically to penicillin-binding proteins located in the bacterial cell wall and initiates a complex series of events leading to inhibition of bacterial growth and finally cell death. Although cefaclor is structurally derived from cephalexin it exhibits higher antimicrobial activity as compared to cephalexin itself.


Cefaclor


Antimicrobial spectrum
Cefaclor Antimicrobial spectrum given below explains how Cefaclor exerts its action on bacteria of different types and groups.

  1. From the group of Gram-negative bacteria
    • Cefaclor is highly active against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Proteus mirabilis
    • Active against Moraxella catarrhalis (Branhamella catarrhalis)
    • Especially active against beta-lactamase producing strains of Haemophilus influenzae.
    • Active against Salmonella and Shigella spp., but not against Enterobacter, indole-positive Proteus, or Serratia spp.
    • Active against Bacteroides fragilis and Acinetobacter.
    • Pseudomonas aeruginosa are not sensitive against Cefaclor and neither are mycobacteria, mycoplasma, and fungi

  2. From the group of Gram-positive bacteria
    • Cefaclor is active against both penicillinase- and non-penicillinase-producing staphylococci, although methicillin-resistant staphylococci are resistant
    • Most streptococci are also sensitive, but not penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae
    • Enterococci are usually resistant
    • Some Gram-positive anaerobes are also susceptible
    • Usually inactive against Listeria monocytogenes

Dosage and Administration
For best results and safety, we advise you to follow the dosage and administration mentioned below;

General rules
  • Always chew CEFAC CHEW tablets before swallowing. Its ability to be absorbed and give faster results depends a lot on its disintegration. This is supported by chewing well prior to swallowing. Since it has a pleasant fruity flavor, chewing it well shouldn't be a problem even for children.
  • It can be taken with or without food.
This product is to be taken as per instructions in the Product package insert, or as recommended by your doctor.

Indications
CEFAC CHEW is indicated for the treatment of infections caused by susceptible microorganisms including;
  • Respiratory tract infection (URTI & LRTI)
  • Otitis media
  • Skin and skin structure infections
  • Urinary tract infections

Presentation
Supplied in a Box with Alu-Alu blister pack of 10 Tablets

This information is meant for answering some frequently asked questions about the product. It does not contain a complete list of all risks and benefits of taking this product. Your doctor or pharmacist can provide more comprehensive information.

References
  • B Farber, RC moellering, The third generation Cephalosporin, Bull. N.Y. Acad. Med, (1982), (58)8, 696-710
  • G R Hordges, C Liu, D R Hinthorn, J L Harms, D L Dworzack, Pharmacological Evaluation of Cefaclor in Volunteers, Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy, (1978), 14(3), 454-456
  • SC Sweetman, Martindale, The complete drug reference, 36th edition, The Pharmaceutical Press, 2009
  • Nai-Xun Chin, H C Neu, Comparative Antibacterial Activity of a New Oral Cephalosporin, BMY-28100, ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS AND CHEMOTHERAPY, (1987), (31)3, 480-483
  • H C Neu, K P Fu, Cefaclor: In Vitro Spectrum of Activity and Beta-Lactamase Stability, Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy, (1978), (13)4, 584-588
  • Karim S, Ahmed T, Monif T, Saha N, Sharma PL, The effect of four different types of food on the bioavailability of Cefaclor, Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 2003 Jul-Sep;28(3):185-90.
  • S F Aman, F Hassan, B S Naqvi, S M F Hasan, Studies of food drug interactions, Pak. J. Pharm. Sci., Vol.23, No.3, July 2010, 313-320
  • Pharmacokinetics for dose proportion; Estimation of 250 mg cefaclor tablet in male volunteers, Professional Med J Dec 2010; 17(4), 706-710.
  • http://www.mims.com/India/drug/info/cefaclor/?type=full&mtype=generic#Dosage. Accessed on 29th June 29, 2012
  • R. B. Kammer, L. J. Short, Cefaclor: Summary of clinical experience, Infection, (7)6, (1979), S631-S635
  • Levine LR, Quantitative comparison of adverse reactions to cefaclor vs. amoxicillin in a surveillance study, Pediatric Infectious Disease, (1985), 4(4), 358-61
CEFPO CHEW
Product Description
Available as CEFPO CHEW 100 and CEFPO CHEW 200

Each CEFPO CHEW 100 tablet (Chewable) contains, Cefpodoxime proxetil USP equivalent to Cefpodoxime 100 mg
Each CEFPO CHEW 200 tablet (Chewable) contains, Cefpodoxime proxetil USP equivalent to Cefpodoxime 200 mg

Pharmacology
Cefpodoxime proxetil is an orally absorbed broad spectrum third generation cephalosporin antibacterial. It is a prodrug that is de-esterified in vivo to its active metabolite, cefpodoxime. The favourable pharmacokinetic profile allows twice daily administration of cefpodoxime.
Cefpodoxime binds to penicillin-binding proteins which thereby suppress the final transpeptidation step of peptidoglycan synthesis in bacterial cell wall. This process inhibits biosynthesis and ultimately arrests cell wall assembly resulting in bacterial cell death.


Cefpodoxime proxetil


Antimicrobial spectrum
Cefpodoxime antimicrobial spectrum given below explains how Cefpodoxime exerts its action on different types of bacterial groups;
  1. From the group of Gram-positive bacteria
    • Cefpodoxime is active against Staphylococci but not methicillin resistant strains
    • Streptococci are sensitive but most strains of enterococci and Listeria spp. are not

  2. From the group of Gram-negative bacteria
    • Cefpodoxime is active against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp. and Both indole-positive and indole-negative Proteus,
    • Providencia, Salmonella and Shigella spp.
    • Penicillin-resistant strains of Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis (Branhamella catarrhalis), Neisseria gonorrhoeae or N. meningitidis.
    • Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacteroides spp. are resistant to cefpodoxime
    • Enterobacteriae are less susceptible to cefpodoxime

Dosage and administration
For best results and safety, we advise you to follow the dosage and administration rules mentioned below;

General rules
  • Always chew CEFPO CHEW tablets before swallowing. Its ability to be absorbed and give faster results depends a lot on its disintegration, which can be supported by chewing well prior to swallowing. Since it has a pleasant fruity flavor, chewing it well shouldn't be a problem even for children.
  • The prescribed dose may be administered with or immediately after meal.
This product is to be taken as per instructions in the Product package insert, or as recommended by your doctor.

Indications
CEFPO CHEW is indicated for the treatment of infections caused by susceptible microorganisms including;
  • Acute bacterial exacerbations of chronic bronchitis
  • Community-Acquired Pneumonia
  • Acute maxillary Sinusitis
  • Pharyngitis or tonsillitis
  • Acute otitis media
  • Skin and soft tissue infections
  • Urinary tract infections
  • Uncomplicated gonorrhoea
Presentation
Supplied in a Box with Alu-Alu blister pack of 10 Tablets.

This information is meant for answering some frequently asked questions about the product. It does not contain a complete list of all risks and benefits of taking this product. Your doctor or pharmacist can provide more comprehensive information.

References
  • Borin, Marie T, A Review of the Pharmacokinetics of Cefpodoxime Proxetil, Drugs, (1991), 42
  • Fulton, Bret; Perry, Caroline M, Cefpodoxime Proxetil: A Review of its Use in the Management of Bacterial Infections in Paediatric Patients, Paediatric Drugs, (2001), 3(2), 137-158
  • http://www.mims.com/USA/drug/info/cefpodoxime/?type=full&mtype=generic#Actions Accessed on 4th July 2012
  • C C Knapp, J Sierra-Madero, J A Washington, Antibacterial Activities of Cefpodoxime, Cefixime, and Ceftriaxone, Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy, (1988), (32)12, 1896-1898
  • S Miyazaki, Y Miyazaki, A Tsuji, M Nishida, S Goto, In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of ME1207, a New Oral Cephalosporin, Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy, (1991), (35)8, 1691-1694
  • SC Sweetman, Martindale, The complete drug reference, 36th edition, The Pharmaceutical Press, 2009
  • J E Frampton, R N Brogden, H D Langtry, M M Buckley, Cefpodoxime Proxetil: A Review of its Antibacterial Activity, Pharmacokinetic Properties and Therapeutic Potential, Drugs, (1992), (44)2
CEFDI CHEW

Product Description
Available as CEFDI CHEW 300mg

Each CEFDI CHEW tablet (Chewable) contains, Cefdinir USP 300 mg

Pharmacology
Cefdinir is a third generation, broad spectrum oral cephalosporin. Like all cephalosporins, it interferes with the final step of peptidoglycan cross linking which thereby inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis. The bacterial cell membranes loses its rigidity and protective properties in the absence of peptidoglycans, the cell gets ruptured and dies. Cefdinir is also stable in the presence beta lactamases by several bacteria which makes it useful against many organisms that are resistant to both penicillins and some cephalosporins.


Cefdinir

Antimicrobial spectrum
Cefdinir Antimicrobial spectrum given enlists the activity of Cefdinir on bacteria of different types and groups;

  1. From the group of Gram-positive bacteria
    • Cefdinir is highly active against Streptococcus pneumonia, Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococci)and Streptococcus Pyogenes (group A streptococci) but penicillin-resistant pneumococci are apparently resistant
    • Spirochaete Borrelia burgdorferi and Haemophilus ducreyi are also sensitive
    • Active against Staphylococcus aureus, including penicillinase-producing strains but not against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus.
    • Staphylococcus epidermidis is sensitive but penicillinase producing strains are not
    • Active against some anaerobic bacteria
    • Moderately active against Bacteroides fragilis but many strains are resistant
    • Enterococci and Listeria monocytogenes are resistant

  2. From the group of Gram- negative bacteria
    • Cefdinir is active against many Enterobacteriaceae including Enterobacter spp., Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp. and Citrobacter
    • Indole-positive and indole-negative Proteus, Providencia, Salmonella, Serratia, Shigella and Yersinia spp.
    • Moderately sensitive against penicillin-resistant strains such as Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis (Branhamella catarrhalis), Brucella melitensis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and N. meningitidis
    • Pseudomonas spp. are moderately susceptible but most are resistant.

Dosage and Administration
For best results and safety, we advise you to follow the dosage and administration rules mentioned below;

General rules
  • Always chew CEFDI CHEW tablets before swallowing. Its ability to be absorbed and give faster results depends a lot on its disintegration, which can be supported by chewing well prior to swallowing. Since it has a pleasant fruity flavor, chewing it well shouldn't be a problem even for children.
  • The prescribed dosage can be taken with or without food.
This product is to be taken as per instructions in the Product package insert, or as recommended by your doctor.

Indications
CEFDI CHEW tablets are indicated in below mentioned infections caused by susceptible organisms.

For adults and adolescents CEFDI CHEW tablets are used in the treatment of:
  • Upper respiratory tract infections
  • Acute bacterial rhinosinusitis
  • Streptococcal pharyngitis
  • Lower respiratory tract infections
  • Acute bacterial exacerbations of chronic bronchitis [ABECB]
  • Community-acquired pneumonia
  • Acute maxillary sinusitis
  • Uncomplicated skin and skin structure infections
For children CEFDI CHEW tablets are used in the treatment of
  • Acute otitis media
  • Pharyngitis-tonsillitis
  • Uncomplicated skin and skin structure infections
Presentation
Supplied in a Box with Alu-Alu blister pack of 10 Tablets.

This information is meant for answering some frequently asked questions about the product. It does not contain a complete list of all risks and benefits of taking this product. Your doctor or pharmacist can provide more comprehensive information.


References
  • Helio et al; Contemporary evaluation of the in vitro activity and spectrum of cefdinir compared with other orally administered antimicrobials tested against common respiratory tract pathogens; Diagnostic Microbiology & Infectious Disease; November 2003 ;Volume 47; Issue 3 ; Pages 515-525;
  • Perry C.M.; Scott L.J.; Cefdinir: A Review of its Use in the Management of Mild-to-Moderate Bacterial Infections; Drugs; Volume 64; Number 13; 2004; pp. 1433-1464(32)
  • Hadley, James A; The efficacy of cefdinir in acute bacterial rhinosinusitis; Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy; Volume 7; Number 8; June 2006; pp. 1075-1083
  • 2010 Nurse's Drug Handbook; Jones and Bartlett Publishers; 9th edition 2010; pp 184
  • Martindale; The Complete Drug Reference; Thirty-sixth edition, Edited by Sean C Sweetman; Pharmaceutical Press 2009; pp. 228
  • Cephalosporins and Related Antibiotics Review; 2010 by Provider Synergies; L.L.C. All rights reserved; Printed in the United States of America
  • Martindale; The Complete Drug Reference; Thirty-sixth edition; Edited by Sean C Sweetman, Pharmaceutical Press 2009, pp. 223
  • 2010 Nurse's Drug Handbook ; Jones and Bartlett Publishers; 9th edition; 2010; pp 183-184
  • Guay DR.; Cefdinir: an advanced-generation; broad-spectrum oral cephalosporin; Clin Ther. 2002 Apr; 24(4):473-89
  • S. R. Scriver and et al.; Comparative in vitro activity of cefdinir (CI-983; FK-482) against staphylococci, gram-negative bacilli and respiratory tract pathogens; European Journal of clinical microbiology & infectious diseases; Volume 11, Number 7 (1992), 646-652,
ZITHRO CHEW
Product Description
Available as ZITHRO CHEW 250 and ZITHRO CHEW 500

Each ZITHRO CHEW 250 tablet (Chewable) contains, Azithromycin Dihydrate equivalent to Azithromycin 250 mg
Each ZITHRO CHEW 500 tablet (Chewable) contains, Azithromycin Dihydrate equivalent to Azithromycin 500 mg

Pharmacology
Azithromycin is an azalide, a sub-class of the macrolide antibiotic. It particularly binds to 50S-ribosomal sub-unit of the bacteria and avoids the translocation of peptide chains from one side of the ribosome to the other. As a consequence of this, RNA-dependent protein synthesis in sensitive organisms is prevented.


Azithromycin

Antimicrobial spectrum
Azithromycin has an expanded spectrum of activity as compared to erythromycin and clarithromycin. The partial cross resistance does exist between the other macrolides and azithromycin. The drug is also effective against beta-lactamase producing organisms which are not resistant to erythromycin.

The anitimicrobial spectrum of azithromycin is as follows
  1. From the group of Gram positive bacteria, Azithromycin is active against:
    • Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, S. pneumoniae, and S. pyogenes
    • Streptococci are more susceptible to macrolide antibiotics than are staphylococci.
    • Listaria monocytogenes
    • Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus or coagulase negative Staphylococci or Erythromycin resistant strains of Staphylococci and Streptococci are generally resistant to azithromycin
    • Not active against enterococci

  2. From the group of Gram negative bacteria Azithromycin is active against:
    • Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis including beta lactamase producing strains are sensitive
    • Organisms responsible for sexually transmitted diseases (N. gonorrhoeae), bacterial vaginosis (Gardnerella vaginalis, Mobiluncus species) and chancroid (Haemophilus ducreyi)
    • Neisseria meningitidis, Campylobacter jejuni
    • Legionella pneumophila, Bordetella pertussis
    • Escherichia coli, Salmonella and Shigella spp.
    • Also active against H. Pylori

  3. Other microorganisms which are sensitive to Azithromycin are:
    • From the group of Mycobacteria Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) organisms [M. avium and M. intracellulare] are sensitive while M. tuberculosis, M. kansasii, M. scrofulaceum, M. chelonae, M. fortuitum and M. leprae are resistant
    • The anaerobic bacteria such as Clostridium perfringens, Peptostreptococcus spp. and Propionibacterium acnes
    • Most Bacteroides spp associated with bacterial vaginosis
    • Chlamydiae including Chlamydophila pneumoniae (Chlamydia pneumoniae) and C. trachomatis
    • Mycoplasma species Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Ureaplasma urealyticum
    • Spirochetes Borrelia burgdorferi, Treponema pallidum and Toxoplasma gondii
    • Entamoeba histolytica, Plasmodium falciparum, Orientia tsutsugamushi (formerly Rickettsia tsutsugamushi), Rickettsia conorii, R. typhi and Coxiella burnettii
Dosage and administration
For best results and safety, we advise you to follow the dosage and administration rules mentioned below;

General rules
  • Always chew ZITHRO CHEW tablets before swallowing. Its ability to be absorbed and give faster results depends a lot on its disintegration, which can be supported by chewing well prior to swallowing. Since it has a pleasant fruity flavor, chewing it well shouldn't be a problem even for children.
  • The prescribed dose may be administered with or immediately after meal.
This product is to be taken as per instructions in the Product package insert, or as recommended by your doctor.

Indications
ZITHRO CHEW tablets are indicated for the treatment of infections caused by susceptible microorganisms including;
  • Upper respiratory tract infections and otitis media
  • Lower respiratory tract infections
  • Skin and soft tissue infections
  • Sexually transmitted diseases, especially genital Chlamydia infections
  • Other sensitive infections
Presentation
Supplied in a Box with Alu-Alu blister pack of 10 Tablets.

This information is meant for answering some frequently asked questions about the product. It does not contain a complete list of all risks and benefits of taking this product. Your doctor or pharmacist can provide more comprehensive information.

References
  • S. C. Sweetman, Martindale, The complete drug reference, 36th edition, Pharmaceutical Press, 2009
  • Jerry M. Zuckerman, Macrolides and ketolides: azithromycin, clarithromycin, telithromycin, Infect Disease Clinics of North America 18 (2004) 621-649
  • D H Peters, H A Friedel, D McTavish, Azithromycin: A Review of its Antimicrobial Activity, Pharmacokinetic Properties and Clinical Efficacy, Drugs. 1992 Nov; 44(5):750-99
  • H. Lode, K. Borner, P. Koeppe, T. Schaberg, Azithromycin - review of key chemical, pharmacokinetic and microbiological features, Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (1996) 37, Suppl. C, 1-8
  • J M Zuckerman, Macrolides and ketolides: azithromycin, clarithromycin, telithromycin, Infect Dis Clin N Am 18 (2004) 621-649
  • M S Kanatani, B J Guglielmo, The New Macrolides Azithromycin and Clarithromycin, West J Med 1994; 160:31-37
CEFU CHEW
Product Description
Available as CEFU CHEW 250 mg and CEFU CHEW 500

Each CEFU CHEW 250 tablet (Chewable) contains, Cefuroxime Axetil equivalent to Cefuroxime 250 mg
Each CEFU CHEW 500 tablet (Chewable) contains, Cefuroxime Axetil equivalent to Cefuroxime 500 mg

Pharmacology
Cefuroxime axetil is a prodrug of the cephalosporin cefuroxime. It is a broad spectrum second generation cephalosporin with a favorable pharmacokinetic profile that permits convenient twice-daily administration.
As like other cephalosporins, it interferes with bacterial cell-wall synthesis leading to destruction (lysis) of the infectious organism. To achieve this effect, the antibiotic must cross the bacterial cell wall and bind to the penicillin binding proteins. These proteins are actually enzymes (transpeptidases) involved in the cross-linking of peptidoglycan polymers.


Cefuroxime

Antimicrobial spectrum
Cefuroxime has bactericidal properties and the important parameter in its antimicrobial efficacy is its stability against [beta]-lactamases produced by several gram negative organisms. The antimicrobial spectrum of cefuroxime is mentioned as follows.
  1. From the group of gram positive organisms:
    • Staphylococci spp. including S. aureus and S. epidermidis including [beta]-lactamase producing isolates are sensitive
    • Streptococci spp. including S. pneumoniae, S. viridans and S. pyogenes but generally less active against non [beta]-lactamase producing strains.
    • Less active against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

  2. From the group of gram negative organisms:
    • Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Proteus mirabilis, Salmonella spp., Shigella spp. are sensitive
    • Haemophilus influenzae, including ampicillin resistant strains
    • Neisseria meningitidis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, including penicillin resistant strains
    • Most Enterobacter cloacae as well as some strains of Providencia (P. inconstans), Serratia marcescens, indole-positive Proteus and Acinetobacter spp. are also sensitive
    • Pseudomonas aeruginosa as well as many strains of Bacteroides fragilis are resistant
Dosage and administration
For best results and safety, we advise you to follow the dosage and administration rules mentioned below.

General rules
Always chew CEFU CHEW tablets before swallowing. Its ability to be absorbed and give faster results depends a lot on its disintegration, which can be supported by chewing well prior to swallowing. Since it has a pleasant fruity flavor, chewing it well shouldn't be a problem even for children.
  • The prescribed dose should be taken with meal to maximize the drug absorption.
Indications
CEFU CHEW tablets are indicated in the treatment of mild to moderate infections caused by susceptible microbial strains in the conditions listed below;
  1. Upper respiratory tract infections
    • Pharyngitis/Tonsillitis
    • Acute Bacterial Otitis Media
    • Acute Bacterial Maxillary Sinusitis

  2. Lower respiratory tract infections including;
    • Acute Bacterial Exacerbations of Chronic Bronchitis and
    • Secondary Bacterial Infections of Acute Bronchitis

  3. Uncomplicated Skin and Skin-Structure Infections
  4. Uncomplicated Urinary Tract Infections
  5. Uncomplicated Gonorrhea
  6. Erythema migrans associated with early stage Lyme disease
Adverse Effects
Cefuroxime is generally well tolerated by adult and paediatric patients with the majority of adverse events are primarily gastrointestinal disturbances including diarrhea, nausea and vomiting. They were mild to moderate in intensity and reversible upon discontinuation of treatment, with very few serious adverse events reported.

There have been rare reports including cases of erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis and antibiotic-associated colitis. Mild to moderate hearing loss in some children when cefuroxime was given for the treatment of meningitis have also been reported.

Presentation
CEFU chew are supplied in a Box with Alu-Alu blister pack of 10 Tablets.

This information is meant for answering some frequently asked questions about CEFU CHEW. It does not contain a complete list of all risks and benefits of taking CEFU CHEW.Your doctor or pharmacist can provide more comprehensive information.

References
  • L J Scott, D Ormrod, K L Goa, Cefuroxime Axetil: An Updated Review of its Use in the Management of Bacterial Infections, Drugs, (2001), (61)10, 1455-1500
  • Debra Kalman, Steven L. Barriere, Review of the Pharmacology, Pharmacokinetics, and Clinical Use of Cephalosporins, Texas Heart institute journal, (1990), (17)3, 203-215
  • Brogden, R.N.; Heel, R.C.; Speight, T.M.; Avery, G.S, Cefuroxime: A Review of its Antibacterial Activity, Pharmacological Properties and Therapeutic Use, Drugs, (1979), 17(4), 233-66
  • S. C. Sweetman, Martindale, The complete drug reference, 36th edition, Pharmaceutical Press, (2009), 238
  • E R Leibovitch, R L Deamer, L A Sanderson, Food-drug interactions Careful drug selection and patient counseling can reduce the risk in older patients, Geriatrics, (2004), 59(3), 19-33
CLARI CHEW
Product Description
Available as CLARI CHEW 250 and CLARI CHEW 500

Each CLARI CHEW 250 tablet (Chewable) contains, Clarithromycin 250 mg
Each CLARI CHEW 500 tablet (Chewable) contains, Clarithromycin 500 mg


Pharmacology
Clarithromycin is a broad spectrum macrolide antibiotic synthesized from erythromycin. The clarithromycin is acid stable and therefore it has improved oral bioavailability and reduced gastrointestinal intolerance. The antibacterial effects of clarithromycin are exerted by reversibly binding to the 50s subunit of the bacterial ribosome. This interaction stops RNA-dependent protein synthesis by preventing transpeptidation and translocation reactions. As an indirect consequence, peptide chain may be prematurely terminated: synthesis of larger proteins is specifically suppressed.


Clarithromycin

Antimicrobial spectrum
Clarithromycin has bacteriostatic action against many Gram-positive and to a lesser extent some Gram-negative bacteria, as well as some other organisms.

The antimicrobial spectrum of clarithromycin is as follows:
  1. From the group of gram-positive organisms:
    • Streptococci particularly Str. pneumoniae and Str. pyogenes are sensitive although increasing resistance has been reported particularly in penicillin-resistant Str. Pneumoniae
    • Staphylococcus aureus are susceptible but resistance can emerge rapidly
    • Bacillus anthracis, Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae and Listeria monocytogenes are susceptible
    • Some enterococcal strains are also susceptible
    • Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Anaerobic Clostridium spp. are also usually susceptible, but Propionibacterium acnes and Nocardia spp. vary in their susceptibility

  2. From the group of gram-negative organisms;
    • Neisseria meningitidis, N. gonorrhoeae and Moraxella catarrhalis (Branhamella catarrhalis) are usually susceptible
    • Bordetella spp., some Brucella strains, Flavobacterium and Legionella spp. are also usually susceptible
    • Helicobacter pylori and most strains of Campylobacter jejuni are sensitive
    • Haemophilus ducreyi is susceptible but H. influenzae is less sensitive
    • Enterobacteriaceae are usually resistant
    • Among the Gram-negative anaerobes most strains of Bacteroides fragilis and many Fusobacterium strains are resistant

  3. Other organisms usually sensitive includes;
    • Actinomyces, Chlamydiaceae and Rickettsias
    • Spirochaetes such as Treponema pallidum and Borrelia burgdorferi
    • Some mycoplasma spp. (notably Mycoplasma pneumoniae), and some of the opportunistic mycobacteria including M. scrofulaceum and M. kansasii are usually susceptible
    • M. intracellulare and M. fortuitum are often resistant
    • Some activity against the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii

Dosage and administration

For best results and safety, we advise you to follow the dosage and administration rules mentioned below;

General rules
  • Always chew CLARI CHEW tablets before swallowing. Its ability to be absorbed and give faster results depends a lot on its disintegration, which can be supported by chewing well prior to swallowing. Since it has a pleasant fruity flavor, chewing it well shouldn't be a problem even for children.
  • It can be taken with or without food.
This product is to be taken as per instructions in the Product package insert, or as recommended by your doctor.

Indications
CLARI CHEW tablets are indicated in the treatment of mild to moderate infections caused by susceptible microbial strains in the conditions listed below;
  • Pharyngitis/Tonsillitis
  • Acute maxillary sinusitis
  • Acute bacterial exacerbation of chronic bronchitis
  • Community-Acquired Pneumonia
  • Uncomplicated skin and skin structure infections
  • In H. Pylori infections, used in combination with other antibacterials
  • In disseminated mycobacterial infections, used in combination with other antimycobacterials
Adverse Effects
Clarithromycin is generally well tolerated, with most adverse events being mild to moderate. The most common events reported are diarrhoea, abnormal taste, nausea, dyspepsia, headache and abdominal pain or discomfort, leading to treatment withdrawal rate of < 3%. A similar pattern but slightly higher incidence of events occurs in children, but leads to treatment discontinuation in < 2% of patients.

Presentation
CLARI CHEW are supplied in a Box with Alu-Alu blister pack of 10 Tablets.

This information is meant for answering some frequently asked questions about the product. It does not contain a complete list of all risks and benefits of taking this product. Your doctor or pharmacist can provide more comprehensive information.

References
  • J M Zuckerman, Macrolides and ketolides: azithromycin, clarithromycin, telithromycin, Infect Dis Clin N Am, (2004), 18, 621-649
  • K D Tripathi, Essentials of medical pharmacology, 5th edition, Jaypee brothers, 686
  • S. C. Sweetman, Martindale, The complete drug reference, 36th edition, Pharmaceutical Press, (2009), 249, 272
  • H D Langtry, R N Brogden, Clarithromycin. A review of its efficacy in the treatment of respiratory tract infections in immunocompetent patients, Drugs. (1997), 53(6), 973-1004
POTCLAV CHEW
Product Description
Available as POTCLAV CHEW 250 and POTCLAV CHEW 500

Each POTCLAV CHEW 325 tablet (Chewable) contains, Amoxicillin trihydrate USP equivalent to 250 mg Amoxicillin and Clavulanate potassium USP equivalent to Clavulanic acid 125 mg .

Each POTCLAV CHEW 625 tablet (Chewable) contains, Amoxicillin trihydrate USP equivalent to 500 mg Amoxicillin and Clavulanate potassium USP equivalent to 125 mg.

Each POTCLAV CHEW 1000 tablet (Chewable) contains, Amoxicillin trihydrate USP equivalent to 875 mg Amoxicillin and Clavulanate potassium USP equivalent to Clavulanic acid 125 mg.


Pharmacology
Amoxicillin is an acid stable and extended spectrum semi synthetic penicillin. As like other beta lactam antibiotics, it binds to the penicillin binding proteins located in the bacterial cell membrane. It is also known to inhibit transpeptidases so that the cross linking which maintains the close knit structure of the cell wall does not takes place. When the bacteria divide in the presence of beta lactam antibiotic, the cell wall deficient forms are produced which bursts and bacterial cell destruction (lysis) takes place.

Although amoxicillin has an extended spectrum of antimicrobial activity against gram negative bacteria, it is susceptible to degradation by beta lactamases from several resistant strains. Therefore, it is given as a fixed dose combination with clavulanic acid.

Clavulanic acid, given as potassium salt is a [beta]-lactamase inhibitor which when combined with amoxicillin extends its activity against bacteria which owe their resistance to the production of [beta]-lactamases.


Amoxicillin Trihydrate


Clavulanate Potassium

Antimicrobial spectrum
Amoxicillin, an extended spectrum penicillin has activity similar to its closely related congener ampicillin. However, the addition of clavulanic acid further extends its spectrum against several resistant strains.

The antimicrobial spectrum of Amoxiclav (Amoxicillin and clavulanic acid combination) is as follows
  1. From the group of Gram-positive organisms
    • Streptococci including Streptococcus pneumoniae and other streptococci are sensitive
    • Listeria monocytogenes is highly sensitive
    • Active against Enterococcus faecalis

  2. From the group of Gram-negative organisms
    • Active against Haemophilus influenzae, Helicobacter pylori
    • Moraxella catarrhalis (Branhamella catarrhalis), Neisseria gonorrhoeae and N. meningitidis
    • Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis and Salmonella spp.
    • Bacteroids and legionella spp.
    • Many anaerobes and Actinomyces spp. are also sensitive
    • Less active against Shigella spp.
    • Inactive against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Dosage and administration
For best results and safety, we advise you to follow the dosage and administration rules mentioned below;

General rules
  • Always chew POTCLAV CHEW tablets before swallowing. Its ability to be absorbed and give faster results depends a lot on its disintegration, which can be supported by chewing well prior to swallowing. Since it has a pleasant fruity flavor, chewing it well shouldn't be a problem even for children.
  • The prescribed dose should be administered at the start of the meal to minimize GI upset.
This product is to be taken as per instructions in the Product package insert, or as recommended by your doctor.

Indications
POTCLAV CHEW 250/125 tablets are indicated in the empirical treatment of bacterial infections caused by susceptible microorganisms including;
  • Urinary tract infections
  • Skin infections
  • Dental Infections
  • Otitis Media
  • Sinus infections
POTCLAV CHEW 500/125 tablets are indicated in the empirical treatment of infections caused by susceptible microorganisms including;
  • Middle ear and sinus infections
  • Respiratory tract infections
  • Urinary tract infections
  • Skin and soft tissue infections including dental infections
  • Bone and joint infections
The higher strength POTCLAV CHEW 875/125 tablets are indicated for the treatment of more severe infections or those caused by generally resistant microorganisms.


Adverse Effects

Amoxicillin is generally well tolerated. Adverse effects reported are moderate to mild in nature and rarely necessitates the withdrawal of therapy. The most commonly reported side-effects include skin rash, pruritus and urticaria, diarrhoea and nausea.

While amoxicillin-clavulanic acid combination is known to be associated with drug-induced cholestatic hepatitis, therefore it is important to carry out certain tests including transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin tests within first two weeks and after four to five weeks of beginning with treatment to recognize early enough undesired hepatic side effects.


Presentation
POTCLAV CHEW are packed in a box of Alu-Alu blister pack of 10 Tablets.

This information is meant for answering some frequently asked questions about the product. It does not contain a complete list of all risks and benefits of taking this product. Your doctor or pharmacist can provide more comprehensive information.

References
  • S. C. Sweetman, Martindale, The complete drug reference, 36th edition, Pharmaceutical Press, 2009
  • Brogden, R.N.; Carmine, A.; Heel, R.C.; Morley, P.A.; Speight, T.M. Avery, G.S, Amoxycillin/Clavulanic Acid: A Review of its Antibacterial Activity, Pharmacokinetics and Therapeutic Use, Drugs, (1981), 22(5):337-62
  • Kelly A. Harris, Kevin W. Garey, and Keith A. Rodvold, Chapter 12. Drug - Food Interactions, Ed. S. C. Piscitelli and K. A. Rodvold, Infectious Disease: Drug Interactions in Infectious Diseases, 2nd Edition, Humana Press Inc., Totowa, NJ, pg. 391
  • Stein GE, Gurwith MJ, Amoxicillin-potassium clavulanate, a beta-lactamase-resistant antibiotic combination, Clinical Pharmacy, (1984), 3(6), 591-599
  • D. H. Staniforth, R. J. Lillystone, D. Jackson, Effect of food on the bioavailability and tolerance of clavulanic acid/amoxycillin combination, J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (1982), 10 (2), 131-139
  • A R White, C Kaye, J Poupard, R Pypstra, G Woodnutt, B Wynne, Augmentin (Amoxicillin/Clavulanate) in the treatment of community-acquired respiratory tract infection: a review of the continuing development of an innovative antimicrobial agent, J Antimicrob Chemotherapy, (2004), 53, Suppl. S1, i3-i20
  • Brogden, R. N.; Speight, T. M.; Avery, G. S, Amoxycillin: A Review of its Antibacterial and Pharmacokinetic Properties and Therapeutic Use, Drugs, (1975), (9)2, 88-140
  • Gresser U, Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid therapy may be associated with severe side effects - review of the literature, Eur J Med Res, (2001), 6(4), 139-49
Bibliography
Cephalosporin
A class of anti microbial agents which are bactericidal in nature. They disrupt the synthesis of the peptidoglycan layer of bacterial cell walls, which causes the walls to break down and eventually the bacteria die.

Congener Ampicillin
It refers to a drug member of the same kind, class or group as that of ampicillin. These include Penicillin G (benzyl penicillin), Carbenicillin and Amoxicillin. The congeners differ from each other on the basis of the changes in the side chain and their spectra are based on the side chains of individual congeners.

GI
It means Gastrointestinal Tract. Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the Mouth to Anus, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (Liver, Biliary Tract and Pancreas). It is also called the digestive tract and is responsible for digestion of food.

Macrolide
These are a class of antibiotics characterized by their large lactone ring structures and by their growth-inhibiting (bacteriostatic) effects on bacteria. Macrolides are usually administered orally, but they can be given parenterally. These drugs are valuable in treating diseases in patients sensitive to penicillin.

Pharmacokinetics
It is the action of drugs in the body over a period of time, including the processes of absorption, distribution, localization in tissues, biotransformation, and excretion. Pharmacokinetic studies are primarily intended to define the time course of drug, major metabolite concentrations in the blood and other body compartments and rate of elimination.

Prodrug
The term prodrug is usually applied to compounds that are inactive in their parent form(s) but which, after administration, are chemically transformed to the active derivative.

Semi synthetic penicillin
These antimicrobial agents consist of the basic Penicillin structure, but have been purposefully modified chemically by removing the acyl group to leave 6-aminopenicillanic acid and then adding acyl groups that produce new properties The semisynthetic penicillins have improved coverage and effectiveness against a wide range of organisms, including most streptococcal and staphylococcal species, aerobic gram-negative organisms, and many anaerobic organisms. The semisynthetic penicillins can be administered either orally or parenterally and in many cases are less costly to administer than others.

Transpeptidases
These are enzymes responsible for cross linking of peptide chains of the linear peptidoglycan. The process is called transpeptidation and it is the final step in bacterial cell wall synthesis. Penicillins are known to inhibit transpeptidases thereby it hinders bacterial cell wall synthesis.


SRS at Glance

SRS Pharmaceuticals Pvt. Ltd. is a privately held Indian Pharmaceutical manufacturing company which strives to deliver solutions through research, quality through commitment and success through innovation. We're a company comprised of many voices, views and talents. We work collectively towards the single goal of providing effective and affordable, high quality products which support the well-being of people. We manufacture and supply a wide range of high quality avant-garde pharmaceuticals to semi-regulated and non-regulated markets across the globe.

Innovation for us is to see how we could add color to the lives of our patients, we think of joy, and good health of our ultimate consumer. This drives us to make products that are immaculate and high quality.

We take the all-rounder approach for creating fun and functional treatments and medications that easily gain acceptance amongst patients and doctors. We accomplish this by having our focus not just on creating effective cures, but also on features such as patient compliance, ease of administration, portability, palatability and several others. Our commitment, fuelled with conviction, guided by values and aimed towards introducing avant-garde products to the global markets.

All Products manufactured by us come to life in WHO GMP Approved Manufacturing Facilities, which are state-of-the-art, and shelter the best, topnotch, high tech equipments and machineries. These are harnessed by our highly qualified and well experienced technical team, to create medical products of an unparalleled quality and value.

Our Company's extensive product catalogue comprises of Sterile Injectables, small volume parenterals, Lyophilized Injections, Effervescent Granules, Direct compression granules, Tablets including Dispersible Tablets, Sustained release Tablets, Film coated, sugar coated, and enteric coated Tablets, Suspension, powder for suspensions in sachets, Topical gels and creams and others.

SRS Pharmaceuticals Pvt. Ltd. has a robust product portfolio spread over major therapeutic areas particularly Cardiovascular Drugs, Anticancer Drugs, Anti-Retroviral, Antibiotics, Anti Tubercular Medication, Analgesics & Antipyretics and others.

SRS Pharma with its contribution to good health, innovation, along with the expertise in the manufacture and supply of the finest quality products has always believed in the global mantra-'only the best quality, capability, infrastructure and pricing can survive in this market.'

For further information on SRS please visit www.srspharma.com.

Contact US
Corporate Headquarters:

SRS Pharmaceuticals Pvt. Ltd.
Office No. 601 to 605, 6th Floor,
Marathon Max Bldg. No. 2,
L.B.S. Marg, Mulund (West),
Mumbai - 400 080, India
Phone: 022 - 41577000
Email: info@srspharma.com


Global Operations:
North America, CIS and Russia, Latin America, Africa & Asia.


For Career Positions Globally:
hr@srspharma.com

 

Know your Antibiotics
What are Antibiotics?
The word antibiotic comes from the Greek word 'anti' meaning 'against' and 'bios' meaning 'life' (bacteria is a life form that enters our body, sometimes causing serious illnesses, and therefore needs to be stopped). Antibiotics are the chemical substances which either kill or inhibit the growth of disease causing microorganisms and bacteria. However an interesting fact is also that, some antibiotics themselves are derived from the bacteria and mold. These microbes release certain chemicals which either inhibit the growth of other microorganisms or kill them. Separation and isolation of these chemical substances makes them useful in the treatment of infections caused by several microorganisms. These antibiotics are therefore considered 'Chemotherapeutic Agents' produced by micro-organisms, falling under the group of the anti-infective / antimicrobial agents. However, there are some antibiotics, which are not derived from bacteria, but are synthesized in laboratories.

How do Antibiotics work?
Although there are a number of different types of antibiotic, they all work in one of two ways:
  • A bactericidal antibiotic kills the bacteria. It usually either interferes with the formation of the bacterium's cell wall or its cell contents.
  • A bacteriostatic stops the bacteria from multiplying.
How are antimicrobials classified?
Based on their Inherent Chemical Structure Antibiotics are classified as:
  • Sulfonamides and related drugs
  • Diaminopyrimidines
  • Quinolones
  • Β-lactam antibiotics-Penecillins, Cephalosporins, Monobactams and Carbapenems
  • Tetracyclines
  • Nitrobenzene derivatives
  • Aminoglycosides
  • Macrolides
  • Polypeptides
  • Glycopeptides
  • Ozazolidinone
  • Nitrofuran derivatives
  • Nitroimidazole derivatives
  • Nicotinic acid derivatives
  • Polyene antibiotics
  • Azole Derivatives
  • Miscellaneous
What are the factors affecting the choice of an Antibiotic Agent?
There are two main categories of factors to be considered in the selection of an antibiotic agent
  1. The characteristics of the anti microbial agent;
    • Site of infection and likely category of microbe causing infection.
    • Capacity of anti microbial agent to achieve a concentration that is equal to, or greater than the minimum effective concentration at the site of infection.
    • Time required for complete killing of micro organism causing the illness (time dependant killing).
    • Type of side effects caused by the anti microbial agent.

  2. The characteristics related to the patient's health;
    • Patient's renal and hepatic functioning because these are the primary organs for the elimination of antibiotic from the body.
    • Age and body weight.
    • Special consideration should be given for the use of antimicrobial agents in pregnancy and lactation for the health benefits to both the mother and the fetus/child.
    • History of allergy or intolerance to particular antibiotics.
    • History of recent antimicrobial use.
What are the common side effects of an Antibiotic therapy?
Side-effects are the unwanted effects of taking a medicine. The most common side-effects associated to the use of antibiotics are:
  • Soft stools or Diarrhea
  • Mild stomach upset
  • Nausea and Vomiting
  • Loss of some nutrients from the body (Mostly iron, calcium and magnesium)
  • Feeling sick
  • Headaches
  • Allergic reactions
  • Occasional abdominal cramps
What safety measures are required to be taken during the course of antibiotic therapy?
  • It is important to tell the doctor if the patient has had a history of allergy to an antibiotic or has experienced side effects from an antibiotic.
  • Some antibiotics are best avoided by pregnant women and nursing mothers.
  • The doctor should be informed of all other medications being taken at the time as antibiotics can interact with other medications.
  • Some antibiotics should not be consumed with certain foods and drinks, while others should not be taken with food in your stomach. It is important to consult the doctor and follow all instructions correctly to avoid complications and achieve best results.
  • The entire regimen of the antibiotic therapy including the dose and duration must be followed and completed.
What are the precautions to be taken during the course of an antibiotic therapy?
Patients under antibiotic medication must take the following precautions
  • Do not self medicate as antibiotic therapy is known to develop hypersensitivity reactions like skin allergies, infectious diarrhea, swelling, breathlessness etc.
  • Some antibiotics if used in combination may antagonize each other reducing their clinical efficacy whereas increase the propensity towards serious side effects.
  • Do not terminate the therapy before the entire regimen completes even if you are feeling better, as any bacteria that has survived may relapse the infection.
  • Similarly do not prolong the therapy beyond the recommended duration as it may lead to super infection due to growth of resistant microorganisms in the physiological systems.
  • If you experience any noticeable hypersensitivity reactions or other side effects inform your physician immediately.
References
  • S Leekha, C L Terrell, R S Edson, General principles of antimicrobial therapy, Symposium on antimicrobial therapy, Mayo Clinic Proceedings, (2011), 86(2), 156-167
  • P Kardas, Patient compliance with antibiotic treatment for respiratory tract infections, Journal of Anti microbial chemotherapy, (2002), 49, 897-903
  • C W Buggs, Antibiotic agents and some general principles of antibiotic therapy, Journal of the national medical association, (1947), 39(2), 45-57